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These ingredients are found within the items we have.  At times, we may put definitions with a specific product and will not include them in this list.

Macadamia Nut Oil (Macadamia ternifolia) - There was a great deal of excitement in the cosmetic industry at the end of the 1980s with the discovery of the unique compatibility of Macadamia Nut Oil with the human skin. The oil, obtained from the nuts of the Macadamia Tree, contains a high concentration of Palmitoleic acid, and is very similar to mink oil and to the sebum of human skin. No other known plant oil has a similar composition.  Macadamia Trees were originally native to Madagascar and Australia. Called "kindal-kindal" by the aborigines who ate the nuts for hundreds of years before outsiders settled the continent, they are named for a scientist from Scotland, Dr. John Macadam, who enthusiastically wrote about the fine flavor of the nut while living in Australia during the first half of the 19th century.  Macadamia Trees grow from 50 to 60 feet high and have long, narrow leaves and long clusters of pink or white flowers. The round, hard-shelled nuts grow in clusters and are covered with husks that split when they are ripe. The Macadamia has the hardest shell of any nut. Macadamia Trees are free from diseases, from damage by insects and/or animals. Outside of Australia, no part of the tree, not even the nut, is eaten by wildlife.  The Macadamia Tree grows best in volcanic soil. Hawaii was the ideal location for Macadamias, where the evergreen was introduced in 1878. Today, Macadamias are the third largest crop in Hawaii. The island of Hawaii, known as the Big Island, provides 99% of the Hawaiian Macadamias and 95% of the world supply.  Macadamias are extremely costly to harvest because there is no real season when all the nuts are ripe - they ripen anywhere from late spring to November. In addition, the only way to tell if nuts are truly ripe is that they drop from the trees. This creates problems. Mechanical harvesters can scoop up the nuts from the ground where it's level. However, where the ground is uneven harvest must be done by hand - a slow and costly method. In some areas, the growers attach heavy netting under the tree branches. Ripe nuts, like children on a playground slide, roll down the net and drop into collection bins.  Today, Macadamias are known worldwide for their exquisite and delicate flavor. While most are eaten whole, others are used in candy, ice cream or baked goods. And, increasingly throughout the 1990s, in high quality beauty care items and hair care products.

Manuka and Kanuka - Two wonderful wild trees, which are used in Living Nature items. Extracts from the leaves, bark and flowers contain a variety of bacteriacides, antifungacides and antibiotics.

Magnesium Aluminum Silicate - Absorbent, Anti-caking agent. 

Magnesium Stearate - also called octadecanoic acid, magnesium salt, is a white substance which is solid at room temperature.  It is a salt containing two equivalents of stearate (the anion of stearic acid) and one magnesium cation (Mg2+). Magnesium stearate melts at about 88 °C, is not soluble in water, and is generally considered safe for human consumption. Because it is widely regarded as harmless, it is often used as a filling agent in the manufacture of medical pills. In this regard, the substance is also useful because it has lubricating properties, preventing ingredients from sticking to manufacturing equipment during the compression of chemical powders into solid pills. It is also a common ingredient in baby powders.  When used as a filling agent in the manufacture of pills, such as vitamins, the source of this ingredient is typically beef. However, there is an increasing number of vegetarian options in which the product specifically indicates it contains magnesium stearate from vegetable sources.

Manganese Violet - A hard and brittle metallic element of a moderate purple.  The color additive manganese violet is a violet pigment obtained by reacting phosphoric acid, ammonium dihydrogen
orthophosphate, and manganese dioxide at temperatures above 450 [deg] F. It's probably less technical to say it's a type of metal ore. It's very safe and non-toxic, and one of the few ingredients listed as safe to use around the eye area.

Maltodextrin - Carbohydrate used as a controlling agent for various botanical extracts.

Marjoram - Good for muscular problems, sprains, headache, insomnia, nervous tension and migraine. Antispasmodic. A sedative.

Meadowfoam Oil - Is super critically extracted from the Meadowfoam flower seeds.  A very stable moisturizing and rejuvenating oil, assisting with anti-ageing.  A high resistance to oxidation and heat.  Assists with lubicity and assists in forming a protective barrier on the skin.  It is recognized for its outstanding oxidative stability and contains over 98% long-chain fatty acids and contains higher quality triglyceride levels compared to other vegetable oils.    It is a non greasy emollient that softens and smoothes the skin.  The Latin name is Limnanthes alba.

Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) - Known as MSM, it is the best source of bioavailable, organic sulfur that is required for all plant and animal life.

Mica - Any group of minerals that are found in crystallized, thin elastic sheets that can be separated easily. They vary in color from pale green, brown, black to colorless. Known for the shine it imparts, it can also be milled matte. It is used for the glide that it gives our powders.

Mimosa - A yellow flowering tree that blooms in February and March, common to California.  It is also called Acacia.  The flowers contain an ingredient that is very good for hypersensitive skin that helps against allergies, irritations, itchy skin and very dry skin.

Myrtle - Widely spread in California and Florida.  It is a bush, without blossoms and an evergreen.  It has a very refreshing action, cleans the lymph system by using it on the skin, and supports the skin to detoxify and breathe.

NaPCA - is a humectant for long lasting moisturization.  See Sodium PCA below.

Neem - (Azadriachta indica) Used widely in India as an antibacterial, antiviral. antifungal, antiseptic, antiparasitic agent in toiletries, soap, toothpaste and skin/hair care products. It is used to treat skin disorders such as eczema, psoriasis, ringworm, scabies, syphilitic sores, chicken pox etc. Helps keep products naturally preserved, proving once again that nature is more than capable of handling the job!

Neroli -Soothing; excellent for dry and aging skin.

Oatmeal - A natural cleanser and toner, its mild exfoliating action makes it an excellent addition to facial masks. It has a slight bleaching effect and is said to help fade or remove age spots and other skin discolorations.

Olive Oil - A natural sun screen, very emollient and good for sensitive skin and babies. (Olea europaea) Olive oil is obtained by crushing and pressing the fruit of the olive tree. The olive tree is native to the Mediterranean area, but can be grown in other tropical and warm areas. The olive tree is an evergreen. An important historic oil used extensively in ancient times. Highly nutritive and stable. Contains protein, minerals and vitamins. Superior penetrating power. It is a yellow or greenish. Has acidic and antioxidant values. Olive oil is high in unsaponifiables, which is a large group of compounds called plant steroids or sterolins. They soften the skin, have superior moisturizing effect on the upper layer of the skin and reduce scars. Oils with the highest unsaponifiables are shea butter, avocado oil, sesame oil, soybean oil and olive oil.

Olive Oil Castile - Saponified with salt, it becomes an excellent soap, mild and soothing to the skin. A natural emollient.

Olive Squalane - Boosts the skin's ability to naturally regenerate, nourish, hydrate, oxygenate and protect itself. Squalane is a saturated hydrocarbon, also known as perhydrosqualene. It is obtained through hydrogenation of Squalene, an alphatic trierpene. Marcelet, Tsujimoto and Chapman obtained Squalane in the beginning of the 20th century by isolating shark liver oil.  Squalene has been known to exist in substances such as Wheat Germ Oil, Rice Bran and Olive Oil since ancient times. However, it was obtained primarily from Shark Liver Oil up until recently, since it was not commercially feasible to obtain Squalene from substances such as Olive Oil.  When Squalene was found in human sebum, it acquired great importance because of its possible applications in cosmetics and other pharmaceutical applications. However, its high unsaturation gave it instability against oxidation. The success of total hydrogenation to obtain Squalane provided a highly stable compound, which contributed to its wide success in the cosmetics sector by the 1950's.  Squalane is free from toxicity and irritation, providing very suitable use in a variety of cosmetic applications. It is highly pure, stable against oxidation, free from heavy metals and is totally innocuous to the skin. It adheres to the skin and its natural lipids better than other oils and lanolines. Squalane from vegetable extraction is a low viscosity neutral oil, imperceptible odor, agreeable to the touch, gives it better compatibility in cosmetic formulations.  Squalane has a fixed and constant composition in contrast with mineral oils. Its emollient and moisturizing properties; its affinity with the skin; its emulsion ability with human sebum and other compounds and its penetration power, makes it irreplaceable in a variety of cosmetic formulations such as:

  • Cleansing creams and milks
  • Makeup bases and Lipsticks
  • Moisturizing and Anti-wrinkle creams
  • Hair Cosmetics and Preparations
  • Lotions and Massage and bath oils

Organo Silicone - Made from sand that is a combination of minerals but largely comprised of quartz. This state-of-the-art ingredient replaces the need for oils and is the coating on our Micronized Titanium Dioxide. Organo Silicone aids spreading, is transfer resistant and imparts a remarkable smoothness and creaminess to the overall product. It also improves coverage without adding heaviness. And, it is non-comedogenic and highly water repellent. It gives Real Purity®'s titanium dioxide the highest light refractive ability of any titanium. This outstanding ingredient is one of the driving forces behind the creative evolution of color cosmetics.

PABA (Para-Aminobenzoic Acid) ** - A substance which absorbs UV light, acting as a sunblock. There are two types of PABA. One is natural (which is what is used in Aubrey's case), and the other is synthetic. Natural PABA comes from water-soluable B vitamin.

Palma Rosa - Good for skin infections, scars, sores, wrinkles and acne. An antiseptic cellular stimulant, moisturizes the skin, regulates sebum production, hydrating.

Panthenol - A vitamin B Complex Factor. It is excellent for skin and scalp. It strengthens hair follicles, makes hair look thicker and fuller, gives it body and improves the shine. It also decreases damage from chemical treatments such as perms, dyes and relaxers.

Passion Fruit Oil - Passion Fruit Oil comes from the Passion Fruits of the tropic. The Passion Fruit vine is a shallow-rooted, woody, perennial, climbing by means of tendrils. The alternate, evergreen leaves, deeply 3-lobed when mature, are finely toothed, 3 to 8 in (7.5-20 cm) long, deep-green and glossy above, paler and dull beneath, and, like the young stems and tendrils, tinged with red or purple, especially in the yellow form. A single, fragrant flower, 2 to 3 in (5-7.5 cm) wide, is borne at each node on the new growth. The bloom, clasped by 3 large, green, leaf-like bracts, consists of 5 greenish-white sepals, 5 white petals, a fringelike corona of straight, white-tipped rays, rich purple at the base, also 5 stamens with large anthers, the ovary, and triple-branched style forming a prominent central structure. The flower of the yellow is the showier, with more intense color. The nearly round or ovoid fruit, 1 1/2 to 3 in (4-7.5 cm) wide, has a tough rind, smooth, waxy, ranging in hue from dark-purple with faint, fine white specks, to light-yellow or pumpkin-color. It is 1/8 in (3 mm) thick, adhering to a 1/4 in (6 mm) layer of white pith. Within is a cavity more or less filled with an aromatic mass of double-walled, membranous sacs filled with orange-colored, pulpy juice and as many as 250 small, hard, dark-brown or black, pitted seeds. The flavor is appealing, musky, guava-like, subacid to acid.  Because of its unique and aromatic flavor characteristics, Ecuadorian Passion Fruit is increasingly desirable in the world market. Passion Fruit is known to be high in Vitamin A and Potassium. There are two commercially grown varieties: purple and yellow. Due to its great nutritional contribution, the yellow variety is used to elaborate juices, desserts, and cocktails, among others. The purple variety is sold in fresh fruit markets.  The by-products of Passion Fruit have many applications. The aroma is used for the preparation of essences, the ground seeds to elaborate feed with a high percentage of proteins and the oil extracted from the seeds is used to produce cosmetics or food.

Patchouli - Penetrating, long lasting, musty, woody fragrance. Anti-inflammatory, cell regenerator, rejuvenating. Good for skin inflammations, fungal infections, acne, wrinkles and eczema. Alleviates depression and anxiety, uplifting, confidence builder. Stimulant at low doses, sedative at high doses. Insect repellent.

Pennyroyal - A member of the mint family, pennyroyal is a strong purifier, antiseptic and freshener. A good insect repellent. Stimulating. Do not use if pregnant, can be abortive in high doses. High doses can also cause death to user.

Pentapeptide (Matrixl) - Matrixyl(tm) 3000 contains twp matrikines(tm), Pal-GHK and Pal-GQPR which act in synergy to restore and maintain skin's youthful appearance.  These matrikines which are messengers of cutaneous restructuration and repair.  They can used in formulations for:  anti-aging, face-lifting and wrinkle treatment products; suitable for gels, serums, lotions and creams.

Peppermint Oil - An excellent antiseptic and astringent. An anti-inflammatory, it soothes and tones blemished, irritated skin. Relieves nausea, muscle & joint pains, cold symptoms. Vitalizing; uplifting.

Peru Balsam - A soothing, vanilla like oil that is good for cleansing, moisturizing and softening.

Phenoxyethanol - A paraben free preservative that safely and effectively preserves cosmetics. This is not used in most items we offer at Natural Solutions.  Only a few items include it.  Below is more information that Honeybee Gardens supplied:

"It is not PH dependent, and not a formaldehyde releaser. Phenoxyethanol has been tested on the skin and eyes and it is non irritating and non sensitizing at levels of 2.2% or lower. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review expert panel has deemed phenoxyethanol as a safe cosmetic ingredient as currently used. It is paraben free. It is not considered an irritant or an allergen. It is used in cosmetics to prevent bacterial and microbial contamination of products. While there is a risk of irritation from ANY type of ingredient, the risk to skin and eyes from using a contaminated product is considered by scientists to be even greater. Phenoxyethanol is created by treating phenol with ethylene oxide in an alkaline medium. When these ingredients react they create a broad spectrum, safe and effective preservative. Individually any chemical can be harmful, but together they create a beneficial product. For instance, lye alone is extremely dangerous, but after it reacts with oil and water to create castile soap it is harmless and useful. Other companies claim that phenoxyethanol is derived from rose oil, sage oil, minerals, plant derivatives and even coconut. But honestly, phenoxyethanol is not even remotely related to these ingredients. It is, however, very safe. It does not react with other ingredients, air or light. It is very stable. It is even gentle enough to use on or around mucus membranes.  A product such as mascara must be carefully preserved. It is something you are using around the eyes. If the product is not preserved, a staph infection could result which could be catastrophic. We cannot take this chance. We know the product must be adequately preserved, and the combination of essential oils we use in the majority of our products is not effective enough in this particular formulation. We test all of our products for effectiveness and stability - we need them to be safe. Our only other option for preservatives was parabens and it is our policy not to use those ingredients. We chose phenoxyethanol due to it's track record of safety, stability and low toxicity."

Pine Needle Oil - Antimicrobial and antibacterial, sometimes used as a fragrance. Reviving, balancing, regulating, purifying.

Polyglyceryl -10 Laurate -

Potassium Iodide - Natural mineral used as a thickener and preservative.

Potassium Sorbate -  A Potassium salt version of Sorbic Acid, a polyunsaturated fat used to inhibit mold growth. It was first discovered by the French in the 1850's, having been derived from the Mountain Ash Tree. It is widely used in the food industry and few substances have had the kind of extensive, rigorous, long-term testing that Sorbic Acid and its salts have had. It has been found to be non-toxic even when taken in large quantities, and breaks down in the body into water and Carbon Dioxide in the Krebs Cycle. Many food producers use Potassium Sorbate as a natural preservative to provide freshest, taste, and safety to their products; naturally inhibit microbes, particularly mold. It is used in natural sunscreens for similar reasons.

Pot Marigold - see Calendula

Proline - An amino acid that helps water to penetrate the skin.

Phytic Acid - Chelating agent, derived from rice, used to improve sudsing in hard water by binding calcium and magnesium ions.

Purified Water - Self-explanatory. But just in case: A clear, colorless, odorless, and tasteless natural liquid, H2O, essential for most plant and animal life and the most widely used of all natural occurring solvents. Purification by distillation eliminates all impurities.

Raw Honey - Used in Earth's Beauty Cosmetics: the honey is grown by Amish people who are impeccable. They do not use pesticides and leave the propylis in the honey which is a natural antibacterial. Bacteria does not grow in honey because of its natural antibacterial properties. The reason it is stated as raw, is that it is not heated up over 70 degrees because honey loses all of its natural antibacterial properties when heated up (which is an Ayurvedic belief).  There are also no antibiotics used on the bees as well.

Rice Bran Oil - Rice Bran Oil is the product obtained from the extraction of oil from rice bran kernels. Rice Bran Oil is primarily used in cooking or for feed supplements for horses. It is a desirable cooking oil because of its antioxidant content and cholesterol-lowering properties giving foods a pleasant flavor. Rice Bran Oil's secret lies in its antioxidants. It contains natural Vitamin E, Ferulic acid, and is a natural antioxidant. It reduces cholesterol better than Olive Oil, which is considered the heart-healthy choice. However, it is also a primary component of cosmetics, especially in Japan where it is believed to greatly enhance the beauty of skin and hair. Rice Bran Oil applications are a regular part of beauty treatments in the best salons in Japan. Many persons with dry or scaly skin find marked improvement within a week of taking Rice Bran Oil - one to two tablespoons daily. Rice Bran Oil applied externally to the hair adds body and healthful luster. Rice Bran Oil is used in cosmetics because it's a great moisturizer. It contains natural Vitamin E, flows on yet not "watery", provides moderate penetration and leaves no greasiness or stickiness on the skin.

Rose - Used for anxiety, depression, menopausal problems and an antiseptic and tonic. Reputed to give youth. Good for broken capillaries, dry skin, eczema, herpes, mature and sensitive complexions, wrinkles.

Rose Hip Seed Oil - High in linoleic and linolenic acids as well as Vitamin C, essential for the health of the hair and skin. A tissue regenerator. Rose Hip Oil, from the seeds of the wild rose bush Rosa Affinis Rubiginosa (scientific name), offers healing properties to damaged skin. Rose Hip Oil is found in South America, especially in Peru, Argentina and Chile. Grown in the cool, lush mountainous rain valleys of the southern Andes, the Rosa Mosqueta by the people of Chile has been a well-kept secret for centuries. Rose Hip Oil is obtained from the seeds contained in the intensely red berry-like fruits - or hips - of the wild rose-bush. Due to scientific research in recent years in Chile and other parts of the world, the beneficial effects and healing properties of the natural oil extracted from the Rosehip seeds for skin has been validated by the cosmetic and dermatological industries world wide. Rose Hip Oil can be obtained in oil form or in lotions. Rose Hip Oil in certain lotions offers a natural moisturizing solution for sensitive, allergic, sun damaged, hyper pigmented, aged, and scared tissue. It contains natural retinoic acid, a derivative of Retonol (Vitamin A) for the treatment of eye wrinkles, stretch marks, and unsightly spots. It improves burned skin and aids in the relief of dermatitis. Rose Hip Oil is also an excellent preventative for skin photo aging and immediate relief for dry skin and eczema. The Rose Hip Oil belongs to the Rosaceae family, subfamily Rosoideae, genus Rosa. The Oil obtained from the seeds has a high content of non-saturated fatty acids, like Oleic, Linoleic and Linoleic Acid. Due to its physical and chemical characteristic as well as it behavior it is considered a siccative oil. It is commercially obtained by extraction with organic solvents and its purification is achieved through winterization, in order to eliminate the triglycerides of higher saturation. Stabilizers are added to avoid rancidity. The final product is a transparent liquid, yellow-reddish color with a characteristic odor. Besides the mentioned non-saturated fatty acids, the presence of coordinates, Flavonoids, Vitamin C, a ketonic compound (namely 3-pentenpropyl-kentoe) and lately trans-rhodanic acids have been detected, which could be responsible for the pharmacological and therapeutic properties of the Rose Hip Seed Oil. The unique properties of Rosa Mosquenta - Rose Hip Oil were discovered 1983 through a research team from the Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacology at the University of Concepcion, a prestigious private university in Chile. The study was to evaluate the positive action of the oil in the skin regeneration process. Later in 1988, two doctors published their own extensive findings in a paper titled "Contributions to Identification and Application of Active Components Contained in Rosa Affinis Rubiginosa.

Rosemary - Toner and purifier, with antimicrobial properties, beneficial to both hair and skin. Skin rejuvenator, general stimulant, invigorating, reduces mental strain and fatigue, promotes confidence by minimizing anxiety.

Rosewater - A water-based dilution of the essence of roses used in cosmetics since the 10th century. Used for conjunctivitis.

Rosewood - A cellular stimulant, tissue regenerator. Uplifting, antidepressant, tonic. Calming.

Sacred Birch Tree - It is a tall evergreen tree native to savannas of Tropical Africa.

Sage - A purifier and tonic. Its mild antibacterial action makes it nonirritating and ideal for sensitive skin or scalp. Strengthens overall; cellular stimulant. Astringent. May be toxic if used over long periods of time.

Sandalwood - Aids many skin ailments; may relieve cough/cold symptoms. Astringent, antispasmodic. Euphoric, meditating qualities; antidepressant, stress reducer, uplifting. Aphrodisiac.

Shea Butter - A butter obtained from the nut of the Mangifolia tree (the karite tree) in Central Africa. An excellent emollient for skin moisturizers, a natural sunscreen, good for wrinkles and capillary circulation.  It is extremely therapeutic, helping to heal cracked, aged and damaged skin. Its chemical constituents help to heal bruising and soreness. Shea butter penetrates the skin and leaves it feeling soft and smooth. It has vitamin A, E and is highly compatible with skin. Shea butter has a high content of unsaponifiables and cinnamic esters, which have antimicrobial and moisturizing properties and provide protection from the UV rays of the sun. Unsaponifiables are a large group of compounds called plant steroids or sterolins. They soften the skin, have superior moisturizing effect on the upper layer of the skin and reduce scars. Shea butter is expeller pressed without use of solvents, making a lipid suitable for soaps, cosmetics and toiletries. Shea butter is renowned for is skin softening and moisture retaining ability

Silk Sericin - A natural protein derived from the "glue" that holds the silk fibers together; bonds to hair fibers and strengthens them.

Silica - Derived from sand. Used as a protectant and coloring agent. Absorbent, anti-caking, abrasive (silica dioxide). Real Purity®'s is organic silica (minute particules of sand) that are bound together w/vegetable oil.  They have a spelling error on their label.

Silver - Colloidal silver used as a natural, mineral preservative.

Sodium Cocoyl Isethionate - Is a mild primary surfactant with a dense, luxurious foam. It is mild on the skin, and non-drying. Can be combined with other surfactants to make an elegant creamy shampoo and body wash. It can be used as the only surfactant in a cream or solid bar cleanser. In both hair and skin care applications this surfactant creates an elegant feel during use and a conditioned afterfeel.  Works equally well in soft or hard water. It is also an anti-static agent in shampoos.

Sodium Cocoyl Glutamate - A very mild sudsing agent derived from glutamic acid and coconut oil.

Sodium Isostearoyl Lactylate - Fatty acid ester, derived from vegetable stearic acid and lactic acid, to improve hair texture - acts like a moisture magnet.

Sodium Hyaluronate - botanically derived from microplants.  Holds 200 times its weight in water, protects and lubricates the cells.

Sodium Stearoyl Lactylate - Derived from beets. It is a moisture magnet that helps the skin maintain its water reservoirs and helps to retain moisture in cells.

Sodium Hydroxide - used for pH control, and acid neutralization. It is an ion created from salt.

Sodium PCA - Naturally occurring in the human skin that binds moisture, increased skin elasticity, and softness.  Is hygroscopic, attracting moisture from the air. It is used as a moisturizer (humectant) for hair and skin care products. It is a stronger hydrating agent than the traditional compounds used for this purpose, such as glycerine <>, propylene glycol <>, or sorbitol <>. Natural and clean.  naPCA is the same thing.

Sorbic Acid - Used as a preservative system and pH buffer. It is made from starch and vinegar.

Sorbitol - First isolated from mountain ash berries, sorbitol provides natural sweetness without sugar. Provides a soft and velvety texture to the skin.

Spearmint - Similar beneficial properties of Peppermint. Better suited for children because it is milder.

Spirulina Maxima -  Blue green algae. An excellent source of protein and other vitamins and minerals to help the appearance and the feeling of elasticity in the skin.

Stearalkonium Bentonite - Gel-forming agent, thickener that prevents sinking of color particles in nail polish.

Stearates - Natural source oil - commonly from animal fat rendering but can come from plants as well.

Stearic Acid - Thickener naturally occurring in butter acids, cascarilla bark and other oils.

Sunflower Seed Extract -  Contains enriched phyto-nutrients, including a specialized antioxidant that counteracts damage done by peroxide (a free radical). Hair can lose color when exposed to peroxide, whether from sun, bleach, or body condtions. Test prove that SSE decreases the level of peroxides by 69%, so it very effectively maintains rich natural hair color and keeps chemical color from fading. The wild Sunflower is native to North America, a common crop amongst American Indian Tribes. Evidence suggests that Indians in present-day Arizona and New Mexico cultivated the plant about 3000 BC. Some archaeologists suggest that Sunflower may have been domesticated before Corn. Sunflower was used in many ways throughout the various Indian Tribes. Seed was ground or pounded into flour for cakes, mush or bread. Some tribes mixed the meal with other vegetables such as beans, squash, and corn. The seed was also cracked and eaten for a snack. There are references of squeezing the oil from the seed and using the oil in making bread. Non-food uses include purple dye for textiles, body painting and other decorations. Parts of the plant were used medicinally ranging from snakebite to other body ointments. The oil of the seed was used on the skin and hair. The dried stalk was used as a building material. The plant and the seeds were widely used in ceremonies. Sunflower Oil is virtually clear with a tinge of yellow color. It has a faint and sweet aroma and has a thin texture, which does not leave any oily residue.

Sweet Orange Oil - Contains flavonoids and vitamins A B C and E. Mild sedative; aids dermatitis, oily skin; relieves cold-like symptoms. Relaxing; reduces nervous tension; uplifting, soothing. Good for cellulite.

Talc - There is a lot of confusion with this ingredient.  It has to do with the sourcing.  Logona chooses to use certified asbestos free talc which means that it is a good source and a consumer can have confidence in the ingredient.  If the manufacturer does not reveal this information to the vendor and public, then there may be a problem and a consumer may want to avoid it in their personalcare.  Talc is a metamorphic mineral resulting from the alteration of silicates of magnesium such as pyroxenes, amphiboles, olivine and other similar minerals. It is usually found in metamorphic rocks, often of a basic type due to the alteration of the minerals mentioned above.  A coarse grayish-green talc has been called soapstone or steatite and has been used for stoves, sinks, electrical switchboards, etc. Talc finds use as a cosmetic (talcum powder), as a lubricant, and as a filler in paper manufacture. Talc is used in baby powder, an astringent powder used for preventing rashes on the area covered by a diaper (see diaper rash). Most tailor's chalk is talc, as is the chalk often used for welding or metalworking.  The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considers non-asbestiform talc, that is talc which DOES NOT contain carcinogenic asbestos fibers, to be Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) for use in cosmetics.

Tangerine - Effective on oily skin and acne as it contains a fair quantity of vitamin A.

Tea Tree Oil - Distilled from the leaves of the Australian tree Melaleuca alternifolia. An antiseptic and germicide. Antiviral, alleviates cough/cold symptoms; relieves muscle aches and pains, minimizes most skin irritations, such as acne, cold sores, genital herpes. Antifungus. An insect repellent. Uplifting, purifying, regulating. Tea Tree is a narrow leaved paper bark tree, which occurs in the swamps between the Clarence and Richmond Rivers of South Wales, Australia. Prior to the arrival in Australia of European settlers, the indigenous natives of Australia valued the healing powers of Oil of Melaleuca, especially for its antiseptic and anti-fungal properties. The "Essential Oil" is commonly known and marketed worldwide as Australian Tea Tree Oil.  The Oil is produced by pure steam distillation from the leaves of the Melaleuca Alternifolia tree, which is native to the Australian bush. The Oil is a complex blend of 48 unique organic compounds. The main therapeutic compound is Terpinene 4-OL. It has been discovered that Tea Tree Oil is a broad-spectrum germicide and antiseptic, killing bacteria, yeast and viruses. Tea Tree Oil is powerful concentrated oil with an immediate, deeply penetrating action, is non-toxic, non-irritant and non-corrosive to tissue. Tea Tree Oil has been successful in treatment of the following:

  • Head - dry, scaly scalp areas; dandruff; headaches
  • Skin - acne, fungal patches; bruises; burns; insect bites; ringworm; itches; sweat spots; minor skin bumps; coral scrapes; cleansing of cuts and abrasions; shingles; chicken pox; impetigo; shaving nicks and ingrown hairs; warts; eczema; dermatitis; psoriasis; heat rashes.
  • Nose - blocked sinuses; post nasal drip; congestion; colds or flu.
  • Mouth - canker sores; scratches fro dental braces; sore throat; removal of plague; gingivitis; gum abscess; toothache; fever blisters.
  • Ears - pierced ear infections
  • Body - muscular and ligament discomfort; stiff neck; and joint; tennis elbow; hemorrhoids; chest rub
  • Feet - swollen joints; athlete's foot; blisters; sweat spots; ingrown toenails; corns.
  • Hands - swollen joints; infected fingernails; ragged and damaged cuticles.
  • Infants - teething problems.
  • General Use - insect repellant humidifiers and saunas; cleansing and sanitizing in bathrooms and kitchens; laundry additive for disinfecting.
  • Pets - hot spots; infected fleabites; flea infestation; ticks and lice; hoof thrush; itches and round worm; dry cuts.

Tea Tree Oil came to prominence as a commercially recognized active ingredient in the 1930's and was widely used for the treatment of wounds, particularly by the military. With the discovery of penicillin and the advance of synthetically manufactured antiseptics, the popularity of Tea Tree Oil declined. The recent development of drug resistant microorganisms, through the excessive use of man-made antibiotics, has renewed interest in the medical properties of Tea Tree Oil. In 1994, of the approximately 150 tons produced, over 50% was exported to the United States.

Titanium Dioxide - Titanium Dioxide was first discovered by William Gregory (a Cornish vicar and amateur chemist), in 1791 while examining sand from the local river Helford (rediscovered (1795) by M. H. Klaproth, who gave it its present name.) He used a magnet to extract Ilmenite (a black mineral). From the Ilmenite, he removed iron by treatment with Hydrochloric Acid. The residue, which dissolved only with difficulty in Hydrochloric Acid, was the impure oxide of a new element. Gregory then carried on to discover the reactions, which were to form the basis of the production of virtually all Titanium Dioxide up to about 1960. The most important function of Titanium Dioxide is as a pigment for providing brightness, whiteness and opacity to such products as paints, plastics, paper, inks, fibers, food and cosmetics. Titanium Dioxide is widely used as a paint pigment, especially for exterior paints. Titanium Dioxide is a solid and is polymorphous (it exists in three modifications or crystal structures, Rutile (beach sand), Anatase or Brookite usually associated with iron, either as Ilmenite or Leuxocene Ores. It is commercially available in two crystal structures - Anatase and Rutile.  Aside from its excellent pigmentary properties, Titanium Dioxide, as a chemical, has dielectric properties, high ultraviolet absorption and high stability, which allows it to be used in electro ceramics, glass and sunscreens. It is an excellent reflector; so it is used in solar observatories where heat makes observing impossible. It is used as a sunblock in suncreams, because it reflects, absorbs and scatters light, it does not irritate skin, and it is water resistant - reflectivity near that of a Diamond. It is highly effective in the absorption of rays in the UV-B range. When Titanium Dioxide is bombarded with Ultraviolet rays, it becomes a sterile surface and, for a long period of time afterwards, will kill any germs that come in contact with it. 

Titanium dioxide, a compound whose toxicity remains unclear. Researchers now say the chemical can be absorbed by human skin. The compound's full effects on human health are still under investigation. The U.S. government's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) labels the chemical "a potential occupational carcinogen." Skin & Allergy News (February 1997, p. 15). Dr. Samuel Epstein, Toxicologist and author of "Safe Shopper's Bible", says that in dust form, not liquid, it can cause irritation to the lungs. While research is still required to prove the toxicity of Titanium Dioxide, Living Nature feels if there are any health risks with raw materials used in their products, it is not up to the consumer to find out. They have now removed this material from their formulations and have replaced it with Zinc. But it is still in a few of our other cosmetics and also a main ingredient in the Caribbean Pacific's sunscreen brand.

Tocopheryl Acetate - Natural vitamin E, an anti-oxidant; processed so that deterioration is minimized (pure, unprocessed vitamin E degrades quickly in products). Natural Vitamin E encompasses a family of compounds called tocopherols of which alpha-tocopherol is the most common and most potent. These substances are found largely in plant materials, especially plant oils, alfalfa, and lettuce. They are practically insoluble in water but freely soluble in Oils. Vitamin E is essential for maintaining the activities of enzymes in the cells and for the formation of red blood cells. It protects lung and skin tissue from damage by pollutants and is a powerful free radical scavenger. There is convincing evidence for the involvement of Vitamin E in cancer prevention by inhibiting the formation of cancer-causing nitrosamines and other n-nitroso compounds. In addition, Vitamin E was shown to inhibit skin cancer itself. In the section of preservatives, the important role of Vitamin E is in reducing the formation of free radicals inside the body. Premature aging of the body (and especially the skin) has been linked in several studies to unsaturated free fatty acid radicals and reactive oxygen-forming toxic peroxide that damages and permanently destroy cells. Polyunsaturated oils are much more prone to form free radicals in the body than are other oils. Consumption of polyunsaturated oils in our diet increases the need for additional Vitamin E. Researchers from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in California reported recently that Vitamin E can more than double the lifespan of a human cell in an artificial test-tube environment. These cells usually reproduce about 50 times before dying. When Vitamin E is added to the cultured medium (at about ten times the level normally observed in human tissue) it was found that the cell reproduced through 120 generations. Vitamin E, therefore, can become a dynamic weapon against premature aging and to combat wrinkles. It also promulgates the healing of burned skin without forming scars that contract or remain tender. In addition, Vitamin E Linoleate is a proven deep moisturizer that softens and tones dry lines of the skin.

Thyme - A general stimulant, antiseptic, anesthetic. A good deodorant.

Ubiquinone - See also Coenzyme Q-10 or CoQ10.

Ultramarines - Blue, green, pink, red and violet. A pigment prepared by powdering minerals or compounds like lapis, kaolin, soda ash and charcoal.

Vanilla -  A natural extract derived from the vanilla bean; provides soothing, fragrant effects.

Vegetable Guar Gum - Natural thickener from ground-up nutritive seeds of an Asian tree.

Vegetable Glycerin - A rich humectant, emollient and lubricant naturally extracted from vegetable oils, glycerin has been used in cosmetic formulations for thousands of years. The synthetic version is highly irritating.

Vegetable Xanthan Gum - Liquid blend of Vitamin A and D3. A natural thickener derived from pasteurized ferment that grows on cabbage.

Vitamin E Nicotinate - Alpha-tocopheryl (Vitamin E) nicotinate is a synthetic ester formed from d1-alpha-tocopherol and nicotinic acid. We use the nicotinate which is a naturally forming acid to esterify the vitamin E making it more stable and useful in cosmetic formulations.

Walnut Oil - Walnut Oil comes from the extraction of Walnuts from the Walnut Tree, a common name for some members of the Juglandaceae family, chiefly deciduous, resinous trees characterized by large and aromatic compound leaves. Species of the Walnut family are indigenous mostly to the North Temperate Zone, but also range from Central America along the Andes to Argentina and through tropical Asia to Java and New Guinea.
Walnuts have a healthy fatty acid profile, made up of mostly polyunsaturated and monounsaturated (14%) lipids. There are two classes of polyunsaturated fatty acids -- Omega-6 and Omega-3. Walnuts are a good source of alpha Linolenic Acid (ALA), the parent compound of the Omega-3 family. Most vegetable oils used in our diets are rich sources of the Omega-6 fatty acids. Chinese traditional medicine theorize Walnut kernels as being good for the brain, invigorating intelligence, nourishment for the blood, darkening and nourishment for hair, warming effects for the lung and resolving phlegm, and relieving constipation dispelling cold symptoms. Walnut Oil can be used in any cosmetic product as an active principle or as a carrier oil. It is rich in Vitamin A and E and is very unsaturated providing good moisturizing, anti-aging, regenerative and toning properties.

Walnut oil can be used in:

  • Anti-wrinkle products for around the eyes
  • Creams for dry, normal and mature skin
  • Creams for dry hands
  • Body oils & hygiene products
  • Massage oil
  • Lip balms

Walnut Oil has been used for oil painting as a drying medium. It was extremely common in early days of oil painting, but is seldom used today. It also provide artist's with a non-toxic, environmentally responsible alternative to solvent based, rapid drying alkyd mediums.

Willow Herb -  Epilobium Angustifolium. Botanical extract that provides exceptionally fast and effective anti-irritant action and purifies the skin. Contains the active compound salicin and frequently appears in herbal analgesic formulas.

Wintergreen Oil - A tonic stimulant and astringent, this aromatic oil has a heating or warming action on the muscles and skin. Excellent in body rubs and bath oils. Intensely strong, sweet and woody. Should not be used for aromatherapy.

Witch Hazel - A natural astringent. Often used to treat skin irritations, inflammation, insect bites and burns.

Wheatgerm -  Adds to sun screening properties. Wheat Germ Oil is extracted from the germ of the Wheat Kernel. It is red in color and has a strong odor. This oil is high in Lecithin, Vitamin A, D, and E; Vitamin E is a natural preservative, the highest Vitamin E content of any oil (250 IU per ounce). Twenty-eight pounds of wheat germ is required to produce one quart of oil. Wheat Germ Oil is normally not used as an emollient for creams and lotions, however, is used for its high content of several important active ingredients for skin care. Wheat Germ Oil supports the skin's natural process of regeneration and aids muscle and lymph function. It is particularly valuable for treating dry and aging skin. Creams and lotions manufactured with Wheat Germ Oil have a yellowish color and have the characteristic smell of wheat that cannot easily be masked by the addition of other fragrances.

Wool Wax (Lanolin) - Used as an emulsifier in Martina Gebhardt's skincare treatments.  The wax is an active skin care substance which is particularly useful in the treatment of dry and allergy-prone skin. Wool Wax has no paraffin added unlike traditional lanolins. No classification to label on lanolin as organic exists, but wool wax would be that if it did.

Yarrow Tincture - A herb rich with history. Known as Achillea millefolium, the herb in which Achilles stopped bleeding to his troops wounds in Trojan wars (Ironically shot by an Yarrow). One of Yarrow's many uses is to bring down fevers in colds and flu. Taken internally in a hot tea, the dried herb helps promote sweating by dilating the capillaries at the skin surface, helping cool the body and remove toxins. Also used as a circulatory aid and to lower blood pressure. Yarrow is an amazing herb in the fact that not only does it hinder external bleeding, but it can be used to help normal menstruation and clear clots internally. Yarrow's mild disinfecting and soothing qaulities reduce general rashes and skin irritations. Caution: In large doses yarrow is a uterine stimulant and therefore should be avoided during pregnancy. Yarrow may also have an addictive effect with other blood pressure lowering herbs or medication including diuretics. Please consult your health care provider.

Ylang-Ylang, III - Narcotically sweet, soft, floral, exotic scent. Euphoric, sensual, stabilizes strong emotions; relaxing, soothing, uplifting, stress reducing. Antidepressant, aphrodisiac.

Xanthan Gum - Xanthan Gum is a type of vegetable gum, which originates from sources such as seeds, plant exudates and marine plants. It is used as a stabilizer to carefully control blends of various food ingredients such as fats or emulsifiers. It is used in cosmetics to thicken, and control the separation of the ingredients. Complements the flax gels and other plant gels. Stabilizers have the following characteristics:

  • Control viscosity
  • Control phase separation
  • Prevent synerisis (watering out)
  • Extend shelf life
  • Retard crystal growth
  • Suspend particulate matter
  • Form gels
  • Enhance spreadability

Zinc Oxides - Apart from the numerous uses zinc has in our everyday life, it is used in Living Nature and Caribbean Pacific's sunscreen formulations due to its natural sunscreen properties, protecting chapped lips and skin from the sun's harmful rays. Zinc also improves healing of wounds, like surgical incisions, burns and other skin irritations. It does this by stimulating the transport of Vitamin A from the liver to the skin, helping to protect body tissue from damage. As a drying agent and astringent, zinc oxide has been used for generations to soothe diaper rash and relieve itching. It is also a natural insect repellent.

Zinc Oxide is an oxide of Zinc, ZnO that is nearly insoluble in water but soluble in acids or alkalies. It occurs as white hexagonal crystals or a white powder commonly known as Zinc White. Zinc White is used as a pigment in paints; less opaque than Lithopone, it remains white when exposed to Hydrogen Sulfide or Ultraviolet Light. It is also used as a filler for rubber goods and in coatings for paper. Chinese White is a special grade of Zinc White used in artists' pigments. Because it absorbs Ultraviolet Light, Zinc Oxide can be used in ointments, creams, and lotions to protect against sunburn. Crystalline Zinc Oxide exhibits the piezoelectric effect, is luminescent, and is light sensitive. Zinc Oxide occurs in nature as the mineral Zincite. Zinc Peroxide, ZnO2·1/2H2O, is a white to yellow powder used in antiseptic ointments. Micronized Zinc Oxide is used as an active ingredient in sunscreens. It provides a high degree of UV absorption in both the UV-A and UV-B ranges. Protection in both ranges is now believed necessary to protect against not only sunburns, but also photoaging and photocarcinogenesis. The low level of absorption in the visible wavelength region indicates a transparency to visible light, necessary for consumer acceptance. Most of us remember the white Zinc Oxide cream used by lifeguards around the world to prevent sun burns on their noses and lips. Zinc Oxide ointments have been available for 75 years in the United States and longer in Europe as a soothing ointment for raw skin that has been overexposed to sun and/or wind. Zinc Oxide has always been a superior protector and healer from ravages of UVR. The problem with Zinc Oxide in the past has been that it was unsightly, chalky white in appearance, and never used in skin care for that reason and that reason alone. What has changed that makes Zinc Oxide now the preferred choice of both medical professionals and consumers? Zinc Oxide has always been an inert non-irritating natural ingredient. However now, due to modern technology, we are able to micronize the Zinc Oxide into super fine particles. Particles that have been ground up into micron size can now be made into a fine and light cream that when you spread the product on your skin, it blends very well and it is much less visible than regular size granulars of Zinc Oxide-almost invisible. The use of several sunscreen agents to achieve the desired effects of high SPF numbers, low irritation potential, or broad spectrum protection, is becoming commonplace. Zinc Oxide in combination with Titanium Dioxide provides a totally inorganic sunscreen system. It can also be used with organic additives to boost the final UV coverage, reduce the formula's irritation potential, and take advantage of synergistic effects. Zinc Oxide is listed as a Category I Skin Protectant by the United States Food and Drug Administration, and is considered to be safe and effective for over-the-counter human use. It has a long history of safe use in baby products, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.

Recent research has shown that it is not advisable to use most of the chemicals now commonly used in sunscreens, when and if at all possible. The concern is especially relevant for those areas of the body (i.e. face and hands) that are likely to receive greater UVR damage than those parts of the body that are usually protected by clothes.

The most widely used sunscreens are chemicals that work by absorbing the UV rays. Most frequently used of these compounds are octyl methoxycinnamate, benzophene-3 & 4, and octyl dimethyl PABA. The drawback of these compounds is that they clog the pores, cause breakouts, sensitize and irritate the skin, and cause allergic reactions. According to a recent study conducted on 330 subjects having an allergy to cosmetic products, 36% were allergic to UV filters of this type.